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Schwirtz, Michael. “Why Violence Toward Inmates at NYC’s Rikers Island Jail Grew.” The Boston Globe. August 14, 2014. Accessed June 19, 2016. https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/nation/2014/08/13/why-violence-toward-inmates-nyc-rikers-island-jail-grew/uCyiwnehjdoNWrl6DTsfiN/story.html.

Seitz, Sharon, and Stuart Miller. “Rikers Island.” In The Other Islands of New York City: A History and Guide. Woodstock, VT: Countryman Press, 2001.

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[1] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’” Pacific Standard, July 27, 2015, accessed June 19, 2016, https://psmag.com/across-the-bridge-of-pain-9985b40bf581#.g4f2mbi6m.

[2] Sharon Seitz and Stuart Miller, “Rikers Island,” in The Other Islands of New York City: A History and Guide (Woodstock, VT: Countryman Press, 2001).

[3] John Surico, “How Rikers Island Became the Most Notorious Jail in America | VICE | United States,” VICE, January 11, 2016, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.vice.com/read/how-rikers-island-became-the-most-notorious-jail-in-america.

[4] “To Build a Bigger Jail: Some of the Great Works of the Charities Commissioner,” The New York Times, September 20, 1886, section accessed June 19, 2016, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9804EFDD1E30E533A25753C2A96F9C94679FD7CF.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Surico.

[7] Eric Foner, Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2015), pg. #52-79.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] “Emancipation in New York,” Slavery in the North, 2003, accessed June 19, 2016, http://slavenorth.com/nyemancip.htm.

[11] Foner, 52-79.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid, Jamila Shabazz Brathwaite, “The Black Vigilance Movement in the Nineteenth Century New York City” (Master’s thesis, City University of New York, 2014), pg. #.

[15] Foner 52-79.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Ibid.

[21] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Ibid.

[28] “To Build a Bigger Jail.”

[29] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[33] New York City Guide; a Comprehensive Guide to the Five Boroughs of the Metropolis: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond (New York: Random House, 1939), pg. #426-427, accessed June 19, 2016, https://archive.org/stream/newyorkcityguide00federich#page/426/mode/2up.

[34] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[35] Ibid.

[36] Ibid.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Ibid.

[39] Ibid.

[40] New York City Guide; a Comprehensive Guide.

[41] Raven Rakia, “A Sinking Jail,” Grist, March 15th, 2016, accessed October 15th, 2016, http://grist.org/justice/a-sinking-jail-the-environmental-disaster-that-is-rikers-island/.

[42] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[43]“Prison Demolition Starts Next Week,” The New York Times, December 21, 1935, accessed June 19, 2016, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=9502EFDE1338E13ABC4951DFB467838E629EDE.

[44] Surico.

[45] “To Build a Bigger Jail”.

[46] Surico.

[47] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[48] “Prison Demolition Starts Next Week”.

[49] “To Build a Bigger Jail.”

[50] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[51] Catherine Hryniewicz, “What Is Blackwell’s Island?,” Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, accessed June 19, 2016, http://crystalbridges.org/blog/blackwells-island/.

[52] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[53] “To Build a Bigger Jail.”

[54] Ibid.

[55] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[56] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[57] “Prison Group Fights Rikers Island Dump,” The New York Times, November 24, 1938, accessed June 19, 2016, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9501E4DF1131EE3ABC4C51DFB7678383629EDE.

[58] Ibid.

[59] New York City Guide; a Comprehensive Guide.

[60] Ibid.

[61] Ibid.

[62] Surico.

[63]  Ibid.

[64] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[65] Hermon Zvi and Ruth Beloff, “Anna Kross,” Encyclopaedia Judaica, Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. 2nd ed. Vol. 12. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 373. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[66] Ibid.

[67] “Rikers Island Bridge Opened,” Correction History, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.correctionhistory.org/html/chronicl/nycdoc/html/rispan2.html.

[68] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Madison Gray, “New York’s Rockefeller Drug Laws,” Time, April 02, 2009, accessed June 19, 2016, http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1888864,00.html.

97 Ibid.

[71] Ibid.

[72] Ibid.

[73] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[74] Ibid.

[75] Ibid.

[76] “Community Stats for Rikers Island,” NYCPedia, accessed June 19, 2016, http://nyc.pediacities.com/Resource/CommunityStats/Rikers_Island.

[77] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[78] Ibid.

[79] Ibid.

[80] Ibid.

[81] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[82] Surico. “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[83] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[84] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[85] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[86] John Boston, “Legal Aid Interview,” interview by author, June 29, 2016.

[87] John Boston, “Testimony of The Legal Aid Society on the Long-Term Plan for Borough Jails and Rikers Island,” Legal Aid, April 25, 2006, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.legal-aid.org/media/8191/longterm_plan_for_borough_jails_and_rikers_-_nyc_doc_-_xrefcivilpractice.pdf.

[88] Ibid.

[89] Ibid.

[90] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[91] Roberts, pg. #197.

[92] “Legal Aid Interview.”

[93] Leonard Koerner, “Institutional Reform Litigation,” New York Law School Law Review 53 (2008), accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.nylslawreview.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/16/2013/11/53-3.Koerner.pdf.

[94] Ibid.

[95] Ibid.

[96] Roberts, pg. #197-200.

[97] Ibid.

[98] Gray, “New York’s Rockefeller Drug Laws.”

[99] Philip Shenon, “JAIL RELEASE: WHY?,” The New York Times, November 04, 1983, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/1983/11/05/nyregion/jail-release-why.html.

[100] “Legal Aid Interview.” Shenon, “JAIL RELEASE: WHY?”.

[101] “Legal Aid Interview.”

[102] Ibid.

[103] Ibid.

[104] Ibid.

[105] “Across the ‘Bridge of Pain’”.

[106] Michael Schwirtz and Michael Winerip, “At Rikers Island, Union Chief’s Clout Is a Roadblock to Reform,” The New York Times, December 14, 2014, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/15/nyregion/at-rikers-a-roadblock-to-reform.html?_r=0.

[107] “Protest by Jail Guards Spurs N.Y. Riot,” The Chicago Tribune, August 15, 1990, accessed June 19, 2016, http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1990/08/15/page/5/article/protest-by-jail-guards-spurs-n-y-riot-47-hurt.

[108] Surico.

[109] Alison Mitchell, “Giuliani Appoints Bostonian to Run New York’s Police,” The New York Times, December 02, 1993, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/03/nyregion/giuliani-appoints-bostonian-to-run-new-york-s-police.html?pagewanted=all.

[110] “Broken Windows Policing,” Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, accessed June 19, 2016, http://cebcp.org/evidence-based-policing/what-works-in-policing/research-evidence-review/broken-windows-policing/.

[111] Surico.

[112] “Broken Windows Policing”.

[113] Surico.

[114]“Legal Aid Interview.”

[115] Mary Buser, interview by author, June 23, 2016.

[116] Ibid.

[117] Ibid.

[118] Ibid.

[119] Ibid.

[120] Glenn E. Martin, interview by Chloe Kimball, June 16, 2016.

[121] Ibid.

[122] Ibid.

[123] Surico.

[124] Surico.

[125] Schwirtz and Winerip, “At Rikers Island”.

[126] Surico.

[127] Michael Schwirtz, “Why Violence Toward Inmates at NYC’s Rikers Island Jail Grew,” The Boston Globe, August 14, 2014, accessed June 19, 2016, https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/nation/2014/08/13/why-violence-toward-inmates-nyc-rikers-island-jail-grew/uCyiwnehjdoNWrl6DTsfiN/story.html.

[128] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[129] Schwirtz, “Why Violence Toward Inmates at NYC’s Rikers Island Jail Grew.”

[130] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.

[131] Glenn E. Martin, interview by Chloe Kimball, June 16, 2016.

[132] Surico.

[133] Surico.

[134] Schwirtz, “Why Violence Toward Inmates at NYC’s Rikers Island Jail Grew.”

[135] Mary Buser, interview by author, June 23, 2016.

[136] Mary Buser, interview by author, June 23, 2016.

[137] Seitz and Miller, “Rikers Island.”

[138] Schwirtz and Winerip, “At Rikers Island.”

[139] Ibid.

[140] Ibid.

[141] Ibid.

[142] Ibid.

[143] David Rohde, “Agency Report Hails Switch to Managed Care for Inmates,” The New York Times, November 08, 1998, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/1998/11/09/nyregion/agency-report-hails-switch-to-managed-care-for-inmates.html?_r=0.

[144] Ibid.

[145] Mary Buser, interview by author, June 23, 2016.

[146] Katherine E. Finkelstein, “Bronx Hospital to Drop Its Rikers Contract,” The New York Times, February 29, 2000, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/03/01/nyregion/bronx-hospital-to-drop-its-rikers-contract.html.

[147] Daryl Kelley, “Quality of Jail Medical Care Questioned,” Los Angeles Times, December 27, 2001, accessed June 19, 2016, http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/27/local/me-18313.

[148] Mary Buser, interview by author, June 23, 2016.

[149] Surico.

[150] Surico.

[151] Surico.

[152] Surico.

[153] Schwirtz, “Why Violence Toward Inmates at NYC’s Rikers Island Jail Grew.”

[154] Ibid.

[155] Timothy Williams, “The City Withdraws Its Proposal for a $375 Million Jail in the South Bronx,” The New York Times, March 04, 2008, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/05/nyregion/05jail.html.

[156] Michael Schwirtz and Michael Winerip, “Close Rikers Island? It Will Take Years, Billions and Political Capital,” The New York Times, March 02, 2016, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/03/nyregion/closing-rikers-island-despite-rhetoric-intractable-obstacles-remain.html?_r=0.

[157] Schwirtz, “Why Violence Toward Inmates at NYC’s Rikers Island Jail Grew.”

[158] Graham Rayman, “Rikers Fight Club,” Village Voice, February 04, 2009, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.villagevoice.com/news/rikers-fight-club-6390148.

[159] Ibid.

[160] Ibid.

[161] Surico.

[162] Schwirtz and Winerip. “At Rikers Island.”

[163] Ibid.

[164] Ibid.

[165] Reuven Blau and Erin Durkin, “Bloomberg Bashes Corrections Union for Halting Rikers Island Buses Headed to Court,” NY Daily News, November 22, 2013, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/bloomberg-bashes-union-halting-rikers-island-buses-article-1.1525595. Michael Schwirtz and Michael Winerip, “Norma Seabrook’s Ouster at Union Chief May Complicate Overhaul at Rikers,” The New York Times, June 9, 2016, accessed June 19, 2016, http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/06/10/nyregion/after-fraud-charges-norman-seabrook-is-removed-as-head-of-jail-officers-union.html?referer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F.

[166] Nicole Gelinas, “Why New York Politicians Feared Norman Seabrook,” New York Post, June 13, 2016, accessed June 19, 2016, http://nypost.com/2016/06/13/why-new-york-politicians-feared-norman-seabrook/.

[167] Will Bredderman and Jilian Jorgensen, “The Power and Politics of Norman Seabrook’s COBA,” Observer, June 13, 2016, accessed June 19, 2016, http://observer.com/2016/06/the-power-and-politics-of-norman-seabrooks-coba/.

[168] “Head of Correction Officers Union Steps Down After Arrest,” WNYC, June 9, 2016, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.wnyc.org/story/head-correction-union-steps-down-after-arrest/.

[169] Bredderman and Jorgensen, “The Power and Politics of Norman Seabrook’s COBA.”

[170] “Manhattan U.S. Attorney Finds Pattern And Practice Of Excessive Force And Violence At NYC Jails On Rikers Island That Violates The Constitutional Rights Of Adolescent Male Inmates,” The United States Department of Justice, May 18, 2015, accessed June 19, 2016, https://www.justice.gov/usao-sdny/pr/manhattan-us-attorney-finds-pattern-and-practice-excessive-force-and-violence-nyc-jails.

[171] Ibid.

[172] Ibid.

[173] Meredith Clark and Rachel Kleinman, “DOJ: Violence Rampant against Teen Prisoners at Rikers Island,” Msnbc.com, August 05, 2014, accessed June 19, 2016, http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/doj-violence-rikers-island.

[174] Ibid.

[175] Courtney Gross, “Board of Correction Raises Concerns After Rikers Officials Fail to Eliminate Solitary Confinement for Young Adults by June 30 Deadline,” New York 1, July 7, 2016, accessed July 12, 2016, http://www.ny1.com/nyc/all-boroughs/news/2016/07/7/board-of-correction-raises-concerns-after-rikers-officials-fail-to-eliminate-solitary-confinement-for-young-adults-by-june-30-deadline.html.